straightening without painting cues

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Straightening without painting cues

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Article #1

What can we do to create the illusion of depth in our designs?

Depth Cues

There are 2 types of depth cues

  • pictorial cues — can be reproduced in a photograph or realistic painting
  • non-pictorial cues — can’t be reproduced in a photograph or realistic painting

Pictorial depth cues do not have to be applied singularly to the entire design. They can be applied independently to the different elements that make up your design.

Your visitor will find depth even in a flat design so the question isn’t whether or not to be 3d or 2d, the question is which depth cues will you use.

The rest of this post will focus on some pictorial depth cues.

Pictorial Depth Cues

Below are some of the different cues we can use to give the illusion of depth being present in a design.


When one object obscures part of another object it’s clear there must be a depth of space between them. Objects that are nearer occlude (cover up) objects that are further away.

It’s important that the partially occluded objects are recognized for their complete shapes or the total composition can be seen as two shapes sitting side by side.

One way we can use the above is to organize information so that more important information partially occludes less important information.

Size and scale

We can use the above to show the relative importance of information. Less important information will take up less space and be smaller.


A ground texture can also provides a size reference for other objects.

Linear perspective

These lines don’t need to be visible, though they can be. They can also be implied by the objects in the composition.

Perspective is by definition a technique for representing 3-dimensional objects and depth relationships on a 2-dimensional surface.

Cast shadows

When the shadow is smaller, darker, crisper, and nearer the object casting it, the nearer the object is to the surface holding the shadow.

You can increase the depth by making the shadow larger and lighter and placing it further away from the object. Blurring the edges of shadows also increases the illusion of depth.

Location on the picture plane

Perhaps this has to do with a look at the world around us.

When we stand in our 3-dimensional world it’s those things we see at the bottom (the earth, the grass, the pavement) are those we’re physically connected with, those things that are generally closer to us.

The clouds, the sky, the stars, those things we see above are also further away from us.

Lighting and shading

Gradients, Bevels, Embosses, and the like show depth in the way light is held and reflected off a surface.

The surface of an object can also show more or less light depending on its orientation from the light source. Closer to the light source will show a brighter surface with more reflected light.

Depth of field (focus)

The closer another object is to the one with the focus, the less depth is perceived between the two. The further away on the same depth plane an object is from the focused one, the blurrier it should appear.

This is true regardless of whether or not the out of focus objects are nearer or further from you. The blurriness is relative to the difference in depth with the object in focus.

  • Depth of Field: One of the most important elements in photography
  • Depth of field
  • Tutorials: Depth of field

Reference to nearby or known objects

The known object adds a context tied to the absolute world and as such adds scale to the picture.

The nearby object adds a different kind of context, but a context nonetheless. An object can only be small in relation to another larger object.

Degree of contrast

It also helps account for depth of field as the greater the contrast in focus and blurriness, the greater the distance.



Since the canvas we work in is 2-dimensional, we can only impart a sense of depth through visual depth cues. There are a variety of different cues you can use, each communicating in its own unique way and each with a different strength in making us see depth.


Article #2

Depth perceptionDepth sensation

Monocular cues[edit]

Binocular cues[edit]

Of these various cues, only convergence, accommodation and familiar size provide absolute distance information. All other cues are relative (i.e., they can only be used to tell which objects are closer relative to others). Stereopsis is merely relative because a greater or lesser disparity for nearby objects could either mean that those objects differ more or less substantially in relative depth or that the foveated object is nearer or further away (the further away a scene is, the smaller is the retinal disparity indicating the same depth difference.)

Theories of evolution[edit]

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In art[edit]

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Disorders affecting depth perception[edit]

  • Ocular conditions such as amblyopia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and strabismus may reduce the perception of depth.
  • Since (by definition), binocular depth perception requires two functioning eyes, a person with only one functioning eye has no binocular depth perception.
  • It is typically felt that depth perception must be learned in infancy using an unconscious inference.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ The term 'parallax vision' is often used as a synonym for binocular vision, and should not be confused with motion parallax. The former allows far more accurate gauging of depth than the latter.


  • Howard, Ian P.; Rogers, Brian J. (2012). Perceiving in Depth. New York: Oxford University Press.  In three volumes
  • Palmer, S. E. (1999). Vision science: Photons to phenomenology. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press. 
  • Pirazzoli, G.P. (2015). Le Corbusier, Picasso, Polyphemus and Other Monocular Giants / e altri giganti monòculi. Firenze, Italy: goWare. 
  • Pinker, Steven (1997). "The Mind's Eye". How the Mind Works. pp. 211–233. ISBN 0-393-31848-6. 
  • Sternberg RJ, Sternberg K, Sternberg K (2011). Cognitive Psychology (6th ed.). Wadsworth Pub Co. 
  • Purves D, Lotto B (2003). Why We See What We Do: An Empirical Theory of Vision. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. 
  • Steinman, Scott B.; Steinman, Barbara A.; Garzia, Ralph Philip (2000). Foundations of Binocular Vision: A Clinical Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-8385-2670-5. 
  • Okoshi, Takanori. (2012). Three-dimensional imaging techniques. Elsevier. pp. 387–387. ASIN B01D3RGBGS. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Depth perception.
  • Depth perception example | GO Illusions.
  • Monocular Giants
  • What is Binocular (Two-eyed) Depth Perception?
  • Why Some People Can't See in Depth
  • Space perception | Webvision.
  • Depth perception | Webvision.
  • Make3D.
  • Depth Cues for Film, TV and Photography


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November 2016